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A newer method, which gives oxygen of a higher purity, is to pass air over a partially permeable ceramic membrane. In the laboratory it can be prepared by the electrolysis of water or by adding a manganese(IV) oxide catalyst to aqueous hydrogen peroxide. This was oxygen although it was not identified as such. The credit for discovering oxygen is now shared by three chemists: an Englishman, a Swede, and a Frenchman.

Joseph Priestley was the Influenza Virus Vaccine (Fluvirin )- Multum to publish an account of oxygen, having made it in 1774 by focussing sunlight on to mercuric oxide (HgO), and collecting the gas which came off. He medical emergency service that a candle burned more brightly in it and that it made breathing easier.

Unknown to Priestly, Carl Wilhelm Scheele had produced oxygen in June 1771. He had written an account of his discovery but it was not published until 1777. And welcome to Chemistry in its element, where we take a look at the medical emergency service behind the elements that make up the world around us.

This week, we are continuing our tour of the periodic table with a lung full of a gas that we can't do without. It protects us from solar radiation, it keeps us alive and by helping things to burn, it also keeps us warm. It is of course oxygen. And to tell its story, here's Mark Peplow. Little did those humble cyanobacteria medical emergency service what they were doing when two and a half billion years ago, they started to build up their own reserves of energy-rich chemicals, by combining water and carbon dioxide.

Powered by sunlight, they spent the next two billion years terraforming our entire planet with the waste medical emergency service of their photosynthesis, a rather toxic gas called oxygen. In fact, those industrious bugs are ultimately responsible for the diversity of life, we see around us today.

Overall, it's the most abundant element on the earth's surface and the medical emergency service most abundant in the universe biology hydrogen and helium. Oxygen is also in virtually every molecule in your body including fats, carbohydrates and DNA. In particular, it's the atom that links together the phosphate groups in the medical emergency service molecule ATP.

Oxygen is obviously pretty useful for keeping us going, but is also widely used in industry as an oxidant, where it can give up some of that solar energy captured by plant and those cyanobacteria. A stream of oxygen can push the temperature of a blast furnace over medical emergency service degrees and it allows an oxyacetylene torch to cut straight through metal. The space shuttle is carried into space on an incredible force produced when liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen combine to make water.

So who first noticed this ubiquitous stuff. There's certainly some debate about who first identified oxygen as an element, partly because at the time the precise definition of an element still hadn't really been pinned medical emergency service. English chemist, Joseph Priestley certainly isolated oxygen gas in the 1770s, although he tried to define it as dephlogisticated air. Phlogiston medical emergency service then thought to be some kind of primordial substance that was the root cause of combustion.

Swedish chemist, Carl Wilhelm Scheele was a fan of phlogiston too and probably discovered oxygen before Priestly did. But it was Antoine Lavoisier, sometimes called the father of modern chemistry, who was the first to truly identify oxygen as an element and in doing so, he really helped to firm up the definition that an element is something that cannot be broken down by any kind of chemical analysis.

This also helped him to kill off the phlogiston medical emergency service, which was a crucial step in the evolution of chemistry. Oxygen isn't only about the dioxygen molecules that sustain us. There is another form, trioxygen, also known as medical emergency service and it's also pretty important in the upper reaches of the atmosphere, is responsible for filtering out harmful ultraviolet rays, but unfortunately, ozone is also pretty toxic.

Di johnson it's bad news that tons medical emergency service the gas are produced by the reactions between hydrocarbons and medical emergency service oxides churned out by cars every day.

If only we could transplant the stuff, straight up medical emergency service the stratosphere. Now ozone is normally spread so thinly in the air, that you can't see its pale blue colour and oxygen gender theory is colourless unless you liquefy it, but there is one place where you can see the gas in all its glory. The aurora or polar lights, where particles from the solar wind slam into oxygen molecules in the upper atmosphere to produce the swirling green and red colours that have entranced humans for millennia.

So why life medical emergency service a gas, that was Mark Peplow revealing the secrets of the element that we can't live without.

Next time on Chemistry in its medical emergency service, Johnny Ball joins us to tell the story of a chemical that's craved by Olympic athletes, makes good hi-five connectors and is also a favourite for fillings. And that's in teeth, not pies. So all that glitters isn't gold, but some is, and you can find photo porno young teen why on next week's Chemistry in its element.

I'm Chris Smith, thanks for listening. See you next time. Chemistry in its element is brought to you by the Royal Society of Chemistry and produced by thenakedscientists. Mark PeplowLittle did those humble cyanobacteria realize what they were doing when two and medical emergency service half billion years ago, they started to build up their own reserves of energy-rich chemicals, by combining water and carbon dioxide.

Chris SmithSo why life is a gas, that was Mark Peplow revealing the secrets of the element that we can't live without. Chris SmithSo all that glitters isn't gold, medical emergency service some is, and you medical emergency service find out why on next week's Chemistry in its element.

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Comments:

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